Cheesemaking (176007)

Course coordinator

Course description

Students are introduced to cheesemaking history, cheese definitions and classifications. In this module cheesemaking technology is postulated which starts with the milk selection and its preparation for renneting. These technological steps include milk analysis from the point of milk delivery to the cheesery, removing the mechanical waste, standardisation of the milk for cheesemaking, pasteurisation and the addition of additives and starter cultures in milk for cheesemaking before renneting. The fundamental chemical-biochemical mechanism of renneting is described. Furthermore, general rules for curd treatment is described, cheese moulding and salting in the production of different types of cheeses (fresh, soft, semi hard, hard and extra hard). This module provides general information about ripening and packaging of cheese. Knowledge about hygiene and sanitation in cheesemaking is also covered as well as the implementation of HACCP. This module provides information about the environmental protection during building, reconstruction, designing, and equipping of the cheese making plant. During the practical part of the module (exercises) students are introduced to the business organisation in a cheesemaking plant which includes calculations in the production and dealing of by-products that appear during cheesemaking such as cream, butter and whey (for instance albumin cheese – ricotta). During the laboratory practical work students are introduced to fundamental cheese analysis essential for cheese labelling. Field working includes practical work in the cheesemaking units (three different dairy plants) from milk receiving till packaging of the final products as well as cleaning maintenance of the production units. Students are introduced to the most world famous cheeses through seminars. Each student presents characteristics of a particular cheese in front of the group.

Type of course

ECTS: 6.00

E-learning: L1

Teaching hours: 60
Lectures: 36
Practicum: 16
Seminar: 8

Associate teacher for exercises
Associate teacher for seminars

Sufficient (2): 60-70 %
Good (3): 71-80 %
Very good (4): 81-90 %
Excellent (5): 91-100%

General competencies

The program of course Cheesmaking enables students to acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary for: self-managing technological processes of cheese production in industrial conditions, setting up and implementing a quality control system for cheeses in order to produce a safe product and to protect consumers, waste management in cheese production and environmental protection; planning of cheese production in medium and large scale dairy plant.

Types of instruction

  • Lectures
    Lectures about cheesemaking history, cheese types and manufacturing procedure
  • Auditory Exercises
    Exercises about calculations in cheesmaking and organisation of cheese production in dairy plant
  • Laboratory practice/exercises
    Laboratory exercises about basic chemical analyses of cheese necessary for labeling
  • Field work
    Field work in the dairy plant
  • Seminars
    Seminars about world famous cheeses

Learning outcomes

Learning outcome Evaluation methods
Count and present technological procedures in cheesemaking. Written (Partial written test No 1) and oral exam
Identify control points and critical control points in cheesemaking from receiving the milk till the final product. Written (Partial written test No 1) and oral exam
Making calculations and plans for cheesemaking in the dairy units for different capacities. Written (Partial written test No 2) and oral exam
Determine indicators which influence the environment during building, reconstruction and equipping of the cheesemaking units (intensity and duration of some indicators) and form a conclusion about the programme for environmental protection. Written (Partial written test No 2) and oral exam
Connect different aspects of cheesemaking. Seminar and oral exam

Working methods

Teachers' obligations

The lecturer of an individual unit should organize the lectures as a power point presentation with the time provided for interactive teaching. Lectures of teaching units that cover the subject should be organized according to the timeschedule and held within 15 weeks of direct teaching. All teaching materials that are not contained in the textbook are organized by teachers and according to teaching units available in the MOODLE system.

Seminars are organized and conducted by a teacher on the subject in order to supplement and expand the knowledge of the cheesmaking. The topics of seminar papers must be given to the students at the beginning of the semester and provide them with 10 weeks of preparation. The teacher gives instructions on how to create seminar papers, approaches to scientific literature and databases, useful links, and helps students (provides guidance) during the seminar work. The teacher organizes oral presentation of the seminar papers, actively participates in the discussion together with other students. The overall quality of the seminar work (oral presentation and power point presentation) is evaluated by the teachers with the grade that participate in the final grade.

Auditing and field exercises
The subject teacher should organize the lectures from the auditing exercises as a power point presentation with the time provided for interactive teaching. Field exercises are organized by the subject teacher with the aim of presenting practical work in medium and large scale dairy plants.

Forum for communicating with students; a calendar of important events for the course; information related to the course; the instructions for writing the seminar work and results of written exams are available in the MOODLE system.

Students' obligations

Attending lectures, exercises and seminars is mandatory. In cases of justified or unjustified absence from the lectures and/or exercises and/or seminars, students are obliged to enclose a report stating the reason of the absence, during the semester or within 4 weeks after the end of the semester. In case of the absence of more than 20%, students lose the right of signature, and the subject must be re-enrolled in the next academic year. The obligation of each student is to make a seminar paper and present the topic discussed in the power point presentation (in 10-15 minutes) after which other students and teacher have the right to ask questions. The written part of the exam that is organized within the regular examination period or during the semester students can take written part of exam as two partial written exams. Oral exam is organized during regular examination period.

Methods of grading

Evaluation elements Maximum points or Share in evaluation Grade rating scale Grade Direct teaching hours Total number of average student workload ECTS
Partial written exam No1 40 < 60 %
60-70 %
71-80 %
81-90 %
91-100 %
Insufficient (1)
Sufficient (2)
Good (3)
Very good (4)
Excellent (5)
24 72 2.4
Partial written exam No2 40 < 60 %
60-70 %
71-80 %
81-90 %
91-100 %
Insufficient (1)
Sufficient (2)
Good (3)
Very good (4)
Excellent (5)
24 72 2.4
Seminar 12 1/5
Insufficient (1)
Sufficient (2)
Good (3)
Very good (4)
Excellent (5)
8 24 0.8
Oral exam 8 < 60 %
60-70 %
71-80 %
81-90 %
91-100 %
Insufficient (1)
Sufficient (2)
Good (3)
Very good (4)
Excellent (5)
4 12 0.4
Total 100 60 180 6
Evaluation elements Description Deadline Recoupment
Seminar It is estimated whether a student’s seminar covered all default units as well as his/her mode of presentation (whether he/she read from the slides or how he/she prepared presentation). The last week of course programme In the examination period
Oral exam Three questions to determine whether a student understands and connects the material. The last week in semester In the examination period

Weekly class schedule

  1. Definition of the cheese and cheese classification. History of cheesemaking (L)
  2. Milk preparation for cheesemaking
  3. Practical cheesemaking in the dairy – Part I    
  4. Practical cheesemaking in the dairy – Part II    
  5. Heat treatment of milk in cheesemaking
  6. Cheesemaking fundamental technological procedures – Part I
  7. Cheesemaking fundamental technological procedures – Part II
  8. Calculation and standardisation for cheesemaking
  9. Whey separation in cheesemaking
  10. Acidification during cheesemaking
  11. Determination of gross chemical composition of the cheese
  12. Hygiene and sanitation, HACCP implementation in cheesery and environmental protection
  13. Worldwide famous cheese – Part I
  14. Worldwide famous cheese – Part II
  15. Written and oral exams (S)     

Obligatory literature

  1. Law B.A. (1999): Technology of cheesemaking. Sheffield Academic Press.
  2. Eck, A. and Gillis, J.C. (2000): Cheesemaking from Science to Quality assurance. Second edition, Editions TEC and DOC, Londres, Paris, New York.
  3. Kalit, S. (2016): Oxford Companion to Cheese. In press
  4. Wendorf, L.W. and Kalit, S. (2016): Sheep Milk - Processing of Sheep Milk. In Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals - Secon Editon, In press

Recommended literature

  1. Magdić, V., Kalit, S., Mrkonjić Fuka, M., Skelin, A., Samaržija, D. (2013): A survey on hygienic and physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese. Mljekarstvo, 63 (2), 55-63.
  2. Valkaj, K., Cerjak, M., Kalit, S., Rako, A., Wendorff, W.L. (2013): Do consumers from Međimurje region recognize their autochthonous Turoš cheese. Mljekarstvo, 63 (4), 211-219.
  3. Tudor Kalit, M., Kalit, S., Delaš, I., Kelava, N., Karolyi, D., Kaić, D., Vrdoljak, M., Havranek, J. (2014): Changes in the composition and sensory properties of Croatian cheese in a lamb skin sack (Sir iz mišine) during ripening. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 67 (2), 255-264.
  4. Matić, A., Kalit, S., Salajpal, K., Ivanković, S., Sarić, Z. (2014): Consumers&#39; preferences and composition of Livanjski cheese in relation to its sensory characteristics. Mljekarstvo, 64 (3), 170-177.
  5. Valkaj, K., Kalit, S., Salajpal, K., Zubović, M., Marković, T. (2014): Chemical and microbiological characterization of Turoš cheese. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 79 (3), 201-207.
  6. Matić, A., Kalit, S., Salajpal, K., Ivanković, S., Sarić, Z. (2014): Consumers&#39; preferences and composition of Livanjski cheese in relation to its sensory characteristics. Mljekarstvo, 64 (3), 170-177.

Similar course at related universities

  • University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research

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